Battle of Round Mountain November 19, 1861
Home Page

About This Site

What Happened In Indian Territory

Union and Confederate Indians in the War Between the States

Brigadier General Stand Waite

Choctaw Nation Light Horsemen

Battle of Round Mountain November 19, 1861

Battle of Chusto-Talasah December 9, 1861

Battle of Chustenahlah December 26, 1861

Battle Of Cowskin Prairie, July 3, 1862

Watie Returns to Cowskin Prairie in 1863

What Caused the War Between the States (Civil War)

What is the Official Name For the Conflict That Took Place Between 1861 and 1865?

Definitions of Terms

Visit a Reenactment or Living History Near You.


My Southern English

Links Page



This map of Northeastern Oklahoma shows the route of Loyal Union Creeks led by Chief Opothleyahola from their place of congregation near North Fork (near present day Eufaula, Oklahoma), northwest along the Deep Fork and then north to Round Mountain, then east to Caving Bank then northwest again through Hominy Falls into Kansas.  

Battle of Round Mountain

Campaign: Operations in the Indian Territory (1861)

Date(s): November 19, 1861

Principal Commanders: Chief Opothleyahola [U]; Col. Douglas H. Cooper [CS]

Forces Engaged: Creek and Seminole [U]; Indian Department [CS]

Estimated Casualties:

Confederates:  1 captain and 5 men killed, 3 severely and 1 slightly wounded, and 1 missing.

Union:  about 110 killed and wounded.

Result(s): Confederate victory

The Battle of Round Mountain (also known as Round Mountains and Red Fork) was fought November 19, 1861, in what is now Payne County, Oklahoma (then Indian Territory) during the War Between the States.

Col. Douglas H. Cooper, Confederate commander of the Indian Department, had not been able to reconcile differences with Chief Opothleyahola (sometimes spelled Opothle Yahola) , who commanded a band of Unionist Creeks and Seminoles. Cooper set out on November 15, 1861, with about 1,400 men to either compel submission . . . or “drive him and his party from the country.” His force rode up the Deep Fork of the Canadian River towards Chief Opothleyahola’s camp which they found deserted. On November 19, Cooper learned from captured prisoners that part of Opothleyahola’s band was at the Red Fork of the Arkansas River, where they were erecting a fort.

Cooper’s men arrived there around 4:00 p.m. and he ordered a cavalry charge, which discovered that Opothleyahola’s followers had recently abandoned their camp. The Confederates did find some stragglers beyond the camp and followed them, with the 4th Texas blundered into Opothleyahola’s warriors at the surrounding treeline at the foot of the Round Mountains. The Federals fired into the Confederate cavalry and, in large force, came out to attack them. They chased the Confederates back to Cooper’s main force. Darkness prevented Cooper from attacking until the main enemy force was within 60 yards. A short fight ensued but Opothleyahola’s men broke it off and retreated back to their camp after setting the prairie grass on fire.

On the morning of November 20, 1861 Cooper set out for Opothleyahola’s new camp the but found it gone. At the ford on Salt Creek Cooper found “a field of graves”, Chief Opothleyahola’s buggy, 12 wagons, flour, sugar, salt, and many cattle and ponies. The Confederates claimed victory because Chief Opothleyahola had left the area. This was the first of three encounters between Opothleyahola’s Union bands and Confederate troops. At this time Cooper returned to his base camp and Opothleyahola led his followers on north.  Before the end of the year the chief was forced to flee Indian Territory to Kansas.

The Confederate loss in the engagement was 1 captain and 5 men killed, 3 severely and 1 slightly wounded, and 1 missing. Opothleyahola lost about 110 killed and wounded.

Order of Battle


                    Cooper's Brigade - Col. Douglas Hancock Cooper

  • 6 companies, 1st Regiment Choctaw-Chickasaw Mounted Rifles - Maj. Mitchell Laflore
  • Detachment, 1st Creek Regiment - Col. Daniel N. McIntosh
  • Detachment, Creek Indians - Lt. Col. Chilly McIntosh
  • Detachment, Seminole Indians - Maj. John Jumper
  • Detachment, 9th Texas Cavalry - Lt. Col. William Quayle


                Creek and Seminole Indians - Chief Opothleyahola

  • Lockapoka Creeks
  • Muscogee Creeks
  • Seminoles – Led by Halleck Tustenuggee and Billy Bowlegs

Confederate Forces at 2006 Reenactment of The Battle of Round Mountain

A reenactment of the Battle of Round Mountain is held each February at Jim Thorpe Park in Yale, Oklahoma. The event is held on Presidents' Day weekend with Friday being a day for local schools to visit the encampment and learn about Oklahoma's First Civil War Battle. Saturday-Sunday Admission is $5 for Adults and Children under 12 Free. Visit their web site at or contact Captain Sam Jerome of the 22nd ARK at for more information. Tell them you saw it on Maj. Jim Langley's web site.