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What Happened In Indian Territory

Union and Confederate Indians in the War Between the States

Brigadier General Stand Waite

Choctaw Nation Light Horsemen

Battle of Round Mountain November 19, 1861

Battle of Chusto-Talasah December 9, 1861

Battle of Chustenahlah December 26, 1861

Battle Of Cowskin Prairie, July 3, 1862

Watie Returns to Cowskin Prairie in 1863

What Caused the War Between the States (Civil War)

What is the Official Name For the Conflict That Took Place Between 1861 and 1865?

Definitions of Terms

Visit a Reenactment or Living History Near You.


My Southern English

Links Page




Round Mountain (November 19, 1861)

Caving Banks AKA Chusto-Talasah and Bird Creek (December 9, 1861)

Chustenahlah (December 26, 1861)

Cowskin Prairie (July 3, 1862)

Locust Grove (July 4, 1862)

Fort Wayne (October 22, 1862)

Tonkawa Massacre (October 23, 1862)

Fort Davis (December 27, 1862)

1st Cabin Creek (July 1-2, 1863)

Webbers Falls (1863)

Honey Springs (July 17, 1863)

Perryville (August 26, 1863)

Backbone Mountain AKA Devil’s Backbone (September 1, 1863)

Muddy Boggy AKA Middle Boggy (February 13, 1864)

2nd Cabin Creek (September 19, 1864)

Boggy Depot (1865)


The last Confederate General to surrender his Army in the field was the Cherokee Brigadier General Stand Watie. He Surrendered at Doaksville (located in present day Choctaw County Oklahoma), in the Choctaw Nation, on June 23, 1865. This was nearly three months after the surrender of General Robert E. Lee.

Other Important War Between the States Sites in Indian Territory

Fort Gibson

Fort Arbuckle

Old Fort Arbuckle

Fort Washita

Camp Washita

Fort McCulloch

Fort Towson/Doaksville

Fort Coffee

Fort Holmes

Welcome Friend

In 1861 the area of present-day Oklahoma was known as “Indian Territory” (IT).  About 60,000 Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole Indians (5 Civilized Tribes) resided in the eastern part of the Territory known as the Indian Nations with some 1,500 white men married to Indian women, and some 10,000 Negro slaves. About 2,500 Osage, Caddo, Wichita, Shawnee, and Delaware were part of the Indian Territory population. Approximately 3,000 Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Kiowa-Arapaho were found in the western part of Indian Territory, the Texas panhandle, southeast Colorado, and southwest Kansas. Of these people, approximately 3,500 fought in the Union army while about 15,000 served the Confederacy.  Indian Territory gave a greater percentage of her population to the southern cause than any state except Virginia. Given the task of keeping invading Federal armies out of Texas, The Indian Nations suffered more destruction and loss of civilian life than any state of the Confederacy. But the Indians held; the Federals were never able to reach the Red River.


The fifteen thousand Confederate troops of Indian Territory, of whom no more than seven to eight thousand men were in the field at one given time were, by the end of the war, organized into a division of two brigades. Brigadier General Douglas H. Cooper commanded the division. Colonel Tandy Walker commanded the second, or Choctaw Brigade, composed of Choctaw and Chickasaw units. Brigadier General Stand Watie, a Cherokee, commanded all the Indian units not in the Choctaw Brigade.


Unlike the rest of the Confederacy, Indian Territory troops grew more and more successful after July 1863. The great majority of the Division, still in the field and undefeated in June of 1865, was finally surrendered at Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, on June 23, 1865, by Stand Watie, the last Confederate general in the field to surrender. General Cooper only surrendered his person in May 1865.



Indian Territory in the Civil War, 1861-1865

Cabin Creek, Battle of
Camp Napoleon Council
Camp Nichols
Camp Pike
Choctaw-Chickasaw Regiment of Mounted Rifles
Chustenahlah, Battle of
Chusto Talasa, Battle of
Civil War Era
Civil War Refugees
Cooper, Douglas
Cowskin Prairie Council
Drew, John
First and Second Union Brigades
First Cherokee Mounted Rifles
First Indian Calvary Brigade (CSA)
Folsom, Sampson
Fort Davis
Fort McCulloch
Fort Smith Council
Fort Wayne, Battle of
Free Companies
Honey Springs, Battle of
Indian Expedition (1862)
Indian Home Guard
Indian Territory Military District (CSA)
Locust Grove, Battle of
McIntosh, Chilly
McIntosh, Daniel
Middle Boggy, Battle of
Pea Ridge, Battle of
Pegg, Thomas
Perryville, Battle of
Pike, Albert
Pin Indians
Quantrill's Raiders
Ross, William P.
Round Mountain, Battle of
Second Indian Cavalry Brigade
Territory of Oklahoma
Tonkawa Massacre
Walker, Tandy
Watie, Stand
Watie's Regiment



Calvary Encounter.

Kansas Red Legs came south into Indian Territory and found strong resistance from Native Americans who were allied with the Southern States and Confederates from Texas and Arkansas.

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